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We have recently shown that these neurons regroup two distinct subpopulations within the somatosensory cortex: Neuropeptide Y (NPY)-expressing interneurons, displaying morphological properties similar to those of neurogliaform cells and Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP)-expressing bipolar/bitufted interneurons.

The aim of the present study was to determine the role of these neuronal populations in the control of vascular tone by monitoring blood vessels diameter changes, using infrared videomicroscopy in mouse neocortical slices.

Immunohistochemistry was performed on a transgenic mouse line expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the 5-HT promoter (5-HT3A: GFP).

This line, obtained by using modified bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) was provided by the GENSAT Consortium (Rockefeller University-GENSAT Consortium; (Heintz, 2004) and maintained under the Swiss genetic background by breeding heterozygous mice. Pubmed Abstract | Pubmed Full Text | Cross Ref Full Text Kitaura, H., Uozumi, N., Tohmi, M., Yamazaki, M., Sakimura, K., Kudoh, M., Shimizu, T., and Shibuki, K. Roles of nitric oxide as a vasodilator in neurovascular coupling of mouse somatosensory cortex.

Slices were then rinsed in PBS prior immunolabeling.

For immunofluorescence, sections were incubated sequentially overnight at 4°C with the following antibodies diluted in PBS: rabbit anti-GFP (00, Molecular Probes) and goat anti-collagen IV (0, Millipore). International union of pharmacology classification of receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (Serotonin).

Vasodilations persisted in the presence of the VIP receptor antagonist VPAC1 (PG-97-269), whereas they were blocked in the presence of the neuronal Nitric Oxide (NO) Synthase (n NOS) inhibitor, L-NNA. Interaction of nitric oxide, 20-HETE, and EETs during functional hyperemia in whisker barrel cortex.

Furthermore, some GABAergic interneurons have been reported recently to be involved in the control of cerebral blood flow (CBF) through their ability to express and release vasoactive molecules (Cauli et al., 2004; Cauli and Hamel, 2010).

Brains were cryoprotected in 30% sucrose and cut on a freezing microtome (35 μm). Pubmed Abstract | Pubmed Full Text Karagiannis, A., Gallopin, T., David, C., Battaglia, D., Geoffroy, H., Rossier, J., Hillman, E.

For immunofluorescence, sections were incubated overnight at 4°C with the following antibodies diluted in phosphate buffer (PS) saline (PBS): chicken anti-GFP (00, Molecular Probes) and rabbit anti-NPY (0, Amersham), rabbit anti-VIP (0, Incstar) or rabbit anti-n NOS (0, Santa-Cruz).

However, the processes by which 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin, 5-HT) acts on the cortical network and CBF are complex and deserve to be further understood. Pet-1 is required across different stages of life to regulate serotonergic function.

Indeed, responses to 5-HT seem to depend upon the nature of the receptors involved, and the recruited neuronal populations (Underwood et al., 1992; Cohen et al., 1996; Foehring et al., 2002).

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